General surgery is a surgical specialty that focuses on abdominal contents including esophagus, stomach, small bowel, colon, liver, pancreas, gallbladder and bile ducts, and often the thyroid gland (depending on local reference patterns). offers latest technology, operation techniques and management protocols for some of the commonest diseases of mankind. Diseases range from simple gastrointestinal surgery for appendicitis to advanced surgeries. Between this range lies evidence based treatment for gall bladder stones, hernias etc.
A hernia occurs when there is a weakness or hole in the muscular wall that usually keeps abdominal organs in place – the peritoneum. This defect allows organs and tissues to push through or herniate, producing a bulge.
A doctor’s physical examination is often enough to diagnose a hernia. Sometimes hernia swelling is visible when you stand upright; usually, the hernia can be felt if you place your hand directly over it and put pressure on it. Ultrasound may be used to see a femoral hernia, and abdominal X-rays may be performed to identify a bowel obstruction.
Hemorrhoids are swollen blood vessels in or around the anus and rectum. The haemorrhoidal veins are located in the lowest part of the rectum and the anus. Sometimes they swell so that the vein walls become stretched, thin, and irritated by passing bowel movements.
First-degree piles are swollen cushions that always remain within in the anal canal; these are painless.
Second-degree piles are pushed down (prolapsed) when faeces are passed, but return to their starting position afterwards.
Third-degree piles are pushed down (prolapsed) when faeces are passed, or come down at other times. They do not go back by themselves after faeces have been passed.
The major gallbladder problems that produce gallbladder pain are biliary colic, cholecystitis, gallstones, pancreatitis, and ascending cholangitis. There are two major causes of pain that either originate from the gallbladder or involve the gallbladder directly. They are due to
1) Intermittent or complete blockage of any of the ducts by gallstones or
2) Gallstone sludge and/or inflammation that may accompany irritation or infection of the surrounding tissues.
Circumcision is the surgical removal of the foreskin, the tissue covering the head of the penis. It is an ancient practice that has its origin in religious rites. Today, many parents have their sons circumcised for religious or other reasons.
During a circumcision, the foreskin is freed from the head of the penis, and the excess foreskin is clipped off. If done in the newborn period, the procedure takes about five to 10 minutes. Adult circumcision takes about one hour. The circumcision generally heals in five to seven days.
Appendicitis is an inflammation of the appendix, a 3 1/2-inch-long tube of tissue that extends from the large intestine. No one is absolutely certain what the function of the appendix is. One thing we do know: We can live without it, without apparent consequences.
Appendicitis is a medical emergency that requires prompt surgery to remove the appendix. Left untreated, an inflamed appendix will eventually burst, or perforate, spilling infectious materials into the abdominal cavity. This can lead to peritonitis, a serious inflammation of the abdominal cavity’s lining (the peritoneum) that can be fatal unless it is treated quickly with strong antibiotics.
An abscess is a collection of pus in a warm, red, tender, and swollen lesion (wound). It is most commonly caused by bacteria (germs). An abscess may occur anywhere in or on the body, including the skin. An abscess that needs incision and drainage is usually located deep in soft tissues, such as the thigh. An abscess incision and drainage is a procedure to cut open the skin and drain pus from the abscess.
Surgery is the oldest form of cancer treatment, and for most patients, part of the curative plan includes surgery. The most important part of the consultation with the surgeon is a complete history and physical exam. Before surgical resection, diagnostic and staging studies should be performed. This helps the surgeon determine if the cancer is resectable (removable with surgery), and allows him or her to plan the surgical approach. Due to improved screening techniques, many patients have disease that is curable with surgery alone at diagnosis. In such cases, after surgery, the patient’s follow-up care includes close observation and/or radiology and lab tests.
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